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Retrieved May 15, Phoronix Media. The architectures on the chopping block for Linux 4. Categories : Operating system comparisons Computing platforms Operating system kernels. Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from February Webarchive template wayback links. Namespaces Article Talk.

Views Read Edit View history. Languages Add links. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Commodore International. Exokernel atypical [3]. Hyperion Entertainment. Matt Dillon. Ipfirewall , PF. Unix permissions. ELF , others - platform dependent.

ELF , others. Carnegie Mellon University. ELF , [6] a. Call profiling, statistical profiling, Minix Debugger mdb. Xen , chroot. POSIX real-time scheduling extensions. Kernel preemption [9]. OpenBSD developers. No PowerPC version developed but never officially released. ReactOS Foundation. ELF bit only until Solaris 7 in Zones , chroot.

DTrace , CPU profiling, microstate accounting, perf counters, kernel lock stats, kstats, mdb, kmdb. Real-time scheduler. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Event Tracing [10].


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Multimedia Class Scheduler Service. Unofficial [11]. Ipfirewall , PF starting in Lion. SELinux Sandbox, seccomp. SYN cookies. Capsicum, MAC framework. Solaris Trusted Extensions. Access control list.

Mandatory Integrity Control. Windows Event Log. This method gives insight only into market share of operating systems that are publicly accessible on the Internet. There will be differences in the result depending on how the sample is done and observations weighted. Usually the surveys are not based on a random sample of all IP numbers, domain names, hosts or organisations, but on servers found by some other method. The TOP project lists and ranks the fastest supercomputers for which benchmark results are submitted.

In June , two AIX computers held rank and , [] the last non-Linux systems before they dropped off the list. It held the title from November to November , [] and was decommissioned in Historically all kinds of Unix operating systems dominated, and in the end ultimately Linux remains. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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Web clients' OS family statistics Android or based on. Last update: Recent statistics till is needed for some parts in this section. October Tablets 4. Last update: Recent statistics from is needed for the graph below and the table following the graph. Last update: Recent statistics till mid is needed for some parts in this section.

Last update: Recent statistics from is needed for some parts in this section. Retrieved 22 July Android Police. Retrieved 15 July Retrieved 16 August And only one of them is actually declining. StatCounter Global Stats. Retrieved 1 May Retrieved 1 August Retrieved 12 April Retrieved 6 March Retrieved 7 December Retrieved 15 March The Verge. Retrieved 17 May CBS Interactive. Retrieved 22 March Retrieved 11 March Retrieved 15 June Retrieved 14 July Retrieved 19 April Retrieved 26 January W3 Counter.

Retrieved 5 December Retrieved 17 March Retrieved 14 June The New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 March May Retrieved 9 April Retrieved 1 July Retrieved 11 April Retrieved 30 April Gartner, Inc. Retrieved 25 August Retrieved 18 October Retrieved 23 January Retrieved 2 February Retrieved 9 December Smartphone Subscriber Market Share". Retrieved 5 May Retrieved 30 March Strategy Analytics. Retrieved 31 March Retrieved 21 July Retrieved 20 September Retrieved 16 March Retrieved 7 March Retrieved 20 October Retrieved 10 April Retrieved 12 July StatCounter Press release.

Retrieved 3 April Retrieved 21 October Security Space. Archived from the original on 6 August December Archived from the original on 27 June It was announced in November after the Apple Lisa , but before the Macintosh under the name "Windows", but Windows 1. Windows 1. The shell of Windows 1. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows.

Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2. It features several improvements to the user interface and memory management. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. It runs in real mode but can make use of the high memory area. In addition to full Windows-packages, there were runtime-only versions that shipped with early Windows software from third parties and made it possible to run their Windows software on MS-DOS and without the full Windows feature set.

The early versions of Windows are often thought of as graphical shells, mostly because they ran on top of MS-DOS and use it for file system services. Unlike MS-DOS, Windows allowed users to execute multiple graphical applications at the same time, through cooperative multitasking. Windows implemented an elaborate, segment-based, software virtual memory scheme, which allows it to run applications larger than available memory: code segments and resources are swapped in and thrown away when memory became scarce; data segments moved in memory when a given application had relinquished processor control.

Windows 3. They run inside the same address space, where the segmented memory provides a degree of protection. Microsoft rewrote critical operations from C into assembly. In August , Windows for Workgroups, a special version with integrated peer-to-peer networking features and a version number of 3. It was sold along with Windows 3. Support for Windows 3.

The next major consumer-oriented release of Windows, Windows 95 , was released on August 24, While still remaining MS-DOS-based, Windows 95 introduced support for native bit applications , plug and play hardware, preemptive multitasking , long file names of up to characters, and provided increased stability over its predecessors.

Windows 95 also introduced a redesigned, object oriented user interface, replacing the previous Program Manager with the Start menu , taskbar , and Windows Explorer shell. Windows 95 was a major commercial success for Microsoft; Ina Fried of CNET remarked that "by the time Windows 95 was finally ushered off the market in , it had become a fixture on computer desktops around the world. Windows 95 was followed up with the release of Windows 98 on June 25, , which introduced the Windows Driver Model , support for USB composite devices , support for ACPI , hibernation , and support for multi-monitor configurations.

Windows 98 also included integration with Internet Explorer 4 through Active Desktop and other aspects of the Windows Desktop Update a series of enhancements to the Explorer shell which were also made available for Windows Windows 98 SE added Internet Explorer 5. Mainstream support for Windows 98 ended on June 30, , and extended support for Windows 98 ended on July 11, Windows Me incorporated visual interface enhancements from its Windows NT-based counterpart Windows , had faster boot times than previous versions which however, required the removal of the ability to access a real mode DOS environment, removing compatibility with some older programs , [24] expanded multimedia functionality including Windows Media Player 7, Windows Movie Maker , and the Windows Image Acquisition framework for retrieving images from scanners and digital cameras , additional system utilities such as System File Protection and System Restore , and updated home networking tools.

PC World considered Windows Me to be one of the worst operating systems Microsoft had ever released, and the 4th worst tech product of all time. However, following the successful release of Windows 3. Win32 maintained a similar structure to the Windows APIs allowing existing Windows applications to easily be ported to the platform , but also supported the capabilities of the existing NT kernel.

Following its approval by Microsoft's staff, development continued on what was now Windows NT, the first bit version of Windows. The first release of the resulting operating system, Windows NT 3. Windows NT 3. Windows NT 4. The Windows NT name was dropped at this point in order to put a greater focus on the Windows brand.

The introduction of Windows XP aimed to unify the consumer-oriented Windows 9x series with the architecture introduced by Windows NT, a change which Microsoft promised would provide better performance over its DOS-based predecessors. Windows XP would also introduce a redesigned user interface including an updated Start menu and a "task-oriented" Windows Explorer , streamlined multimedia and networking features, Internet Explorer 6 , integration with Microsoft's.

NET Passport services, modes to help provide compatibility with software designed for previous versions of Windows, and Remote Assistance functionality. At retail, Windows XP was now marketed in two main editions : the "Home" edition was targeted towards consumers, while the "Professional" edition was targeted towards business environments and power users , and included additional security and networking features.

Home and Professional were later accompanied by the "Media Center" edition designed for home theater PCs , with an emphasis on support for DVD playback, TV tuner cards , DVR functionality, and remote controls , and the "Tablet PC" edition designed for mobile devices meeting its specifications for a tablet computer , with support for stylus pen input and additional pen-enabled applications. Extended support ended on April 8, After Windows , Microsoft also changed its release schedules for server operating systems; the server counterpart of Windows XP, Windows Server , was released in April After a lengthy development process , Windows Vista was released on November 30, , for volume licensing and January 30, , for consumers.

It contained a number of new features , from a redesigned shell and user interface to significant technical changes , with a particular focus on security features. It was available in a number of different editions , and has been subject to some criticism , such as drop of performance, longer boot time, criticism of new UAC, and stricter license agreement. Vista's server counterpart, Windows Server was released in early On July 22, , Windows 7 and Windows Server R2 were released as RTM release to manufacturing while the former was released to the public 3 months later on October 22, Unlike its predecessor, Windows Vista, which introduced a large number of new features , Windows 7 was intended to be a more focused, incremental upgrade to the Windows line, with the goal of being compatible with applications and hardware with which Windows Vista was already compatible.

Windows 8 , the successor to Windows 7, was released generally on October 26, A number of significant changes were made on Windows 8, including the introduction of a user interface based around Microsoft's Metro design language with optimizations for touch-based devices such as tablets and all-in-one PCs. These changes include the Start screen , which uses large tiles that are more convenient for touch interactions and allow for the display of continually updated information, and a new class of apps which are designed primarily for use on touch-based devices.

Other changes include increased integration with cloud services and other online platforms such as social networks and Microsoft's own OneDrive formerly SkyDrive and Xbox Live services , the Windows Store service for software distribution, and a new variant known as Windows RT for use on devices that utilize the ARM architecture. Windows 8 and Windows 8. On September 30, , Microsoft announced Windows 10 as the successor to Windows 8. It was released on July 29, , and addresses shortcomings in the user interface first introduced with Windows 8.

Changes on PC include the return of the Start Menu, a virtual desktop system, and the ability to run Windows Store apps within windows on the desktop rather than in full-screen mode. Windows 10 is said to be available to update from qualified Windows 7 with SP1, Windows 8. In February , Microsoft announced the migration of its Windows source code repository from Perforce to Git.

This migration involved 3. Multilingual support is built into Windows since Windows 3. The language for both the keyboard and the interface can be changed through the Region and Language Control Panel. Components for all supported input languages, such as Input Method Editors , are automatically installed during Windows installation in Windows XP and earlier, files for East Asian languages, such as Chinese, and right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic, may need to be installed separately, also from the said Control Panel.

Third-party IMEs may also be installed if a user feels that the provided one is insufficient for their needs. Interface languages for the operating system are free for download, but some languages are limited to certain editions of Windows. This is used for most languages in emerging markets. Full Language Packs, which translates the complete operating system, are only available for specific editions of Windows Ultimate and Enterprise editions of Windows Vista and 7, and all editions of Windows 8, 8.

They do not require a specific base language, and are commonly used for more popular languages such as French or Chinese. These languages cannot be downloaded through the Download Center, but available as optional updates through the Windows Update service except Windows 8.

The interface language of installed applications are not affected by changes in the Windows interface language. Availability of languages depends on the application developers themselves. Windows 8 and Windows Server introduces a new Language Control Panel where both the interface and input languages can be simultaneously changed, and language packs, regardless of type, can be downloaded from a central location. The PC Settings app in Windows 8. Changing the interface language also changes the language of preinstalled Windows Store apps such as Mail, Maps and News and certain other Microsoft-developed apps such as Remote Desktop.

The above limitations for language packs are however still in effect, except that full language packs can be installed for any edition except Single Language, which caters to emerging markets. Windows NT included support for several different platforms before the x86 -based personal computer became dominant in the professional world. Although some these platforms implement bit computing , the operating system treated them as bit.

However, Windows , the successor of Windows NT 4. With the introduction of the Intel Itanium architecture IA , Microsoft released new versions of Windows to support it. Itanium versions of Windows XP and Windows Server were released at the same time as their mainstream x86 counterparts. Windows Server line continues to support this platform until Windows Server ; Windows Server R2 is the last Windows operating system to support Itanium architecture. On April 25, , Microsoft released Windows XP Professional x64 Edition and Windows Server x64 Editions to support the x or simply x64 , the eighth generation of x86 architecture.

Apple Computer, Inc. v. Microsoft Corp. - Wikipedia

Windows CE officially known as Windows Embedded Compact , is an edition of Windows that runs on minimalistic computers , like satellite navigation systems and some mobile phones. The OEMs and device makers can modify and create their own user interfaces and experiences, while Windows CE provides the technical foundation to do so.

Windows CE was the core from which Windows Mobile was derived. Windows Phone 8 however, is based on the same NT-kernel as Windows 8. In Microsoft announced that it would start using Git , an open source version control system created by Linus Torvalds. Microsoft has previously used a proprietary version control system called "Source Depot". However, this decision came with some complexity.

The Windows codebase is not especially well suited to the decentralized nature of Linux development that Git was originally created to manage. Each Git repository contains a complete history of all the files, which proved unworkable for Windows developers because cloning the repository takes several hours. These numbers are easiest monthly numbers to find that track real use, but they may not mirror installed base or sales numbers in recent years of devices. They are consistent with server numbers in next section.

In terms of the number of devices shipped with the operating system installed, on smartphones, Windows Phone was the third-most-shipped OS 2. Use of the latest version Windows 10 has exceeded Windows 7 globally since early Consumer versions of Windows were originally designed for ease-of-use on a single-user PC without a network connection, and did not have security features built in from the outset.

These design issues combined with programming errors e. In June , Bruce Schneier 's Counterpane Internet Security reported that it had seen over 1, new viruses and worms in the previous six months. Microsoft releases security patches through its Windows Update service approximately once a month usually the second Tuesday of the month , although critical updates are made available at shorter intervals when necessary. While the Windows 9x series offered the option of having profiles for multiple users, they had no concept of access privileges , and did not allow concurrent access; and so were not true multi-user operating systems.

In addition, they implemented only partial memory protection. They were accordingly widely criticised for lack of security. The Windows NT series of operating systems, by contrast, are true multi-user, and implement absolute memory protection. However, a lot of the advantages of being a true multi-user operating system were nullified by the fact that, prior to Windows Vista, the first user account created during the setup process was an administrator account, which was also the default for new accounts.

Windows Vista changes this [73] by introducing a privilege elevation system called User Account Control. When logging in as a standard user, a logon session is created and a token containing only the most basic privileges is assigned. In this way, the new logon session is incapable of making changes that would affect the entire system. When logging in as a user in the Administrators group, two separate tokens are assigned. The first token contains all privileges typically awarded to an administrator, and the second is a restricted token similar to what a standard user would receive.

User applications, including the Windows shell , are then started with the restricted token, resulting in a reduced privilege environment even under an Administrator account. When an application requests higher privileges or "Run as administrator" is clicked, UAC will prompt for confirmation and, if consent is given including administrator credentials if the account requesting the elevation is not a member of the administrators group , start the process using the unrestricted token. Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks, codenamed Vault 7 and dated from —, detail the capabilities of the CIA to perform electronic surveillance and cyber warfare, [75] such as the ability to compromise operating systems such as Microsoft Windows.

In August , computer experts reported that the BlueKeep security vulnerability , CVE - , that potentially affects older unpatched Microsoft Windows versions via the program's Remote Desktop Protocol , allowing for the possibility of remote code execution , may now include related flaws, collectively named DejaBlue , affecting newer Windows versions i.

These global groups then hold other groups or users depending on different Windows versions used. This system varies from other vendor products such as Linux and NetWare due to the 'static' allocation of permission being applied directory to the file or folder. Windows Defender is a freeware program designed to protect against spyware and other unwanted software.

Comparison of operating system kernels

Windows XP and Windows Server users who have genuine copies of Microsoft Windows can freely download the program from Microsoft's web site, and Windows Defender ships as part of Windows Vista and 7. It is based on Microsoft Security Essentials , borrowing its features and user interface. Although it is enabled by default, it can be turned off to use another anti-virus solution.

In the Windows 10 Anniversary Update, Microsoft introduced the Limited Periodic Scanning feature, which allows Windows Defender to scan, detect, and remove any threats that third-party anti-virus software missed.


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The Advanced Threat Protection service is introduced for enterprise users.