Apple ii emulator mac os x
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Virtual ][, the best Apple II emulator for macOS
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The new OS eventually included a Macintosh-like Finder for managing disks and files and opening documents and applications, along with desk accessories. Eventually, the II GS gained the ability to read and write Macintosh disks and, through third-party software, even multitasking in the form of a Unix-type shell and TrueType font support. It was the same size and shape as the IIc that came before it, but the 5. Mike Markkula ,  a retired Intel marketing manager, provided the early critical funding for Apple Computer. From to , Apple used the Regis McKenna agency for its advertisements and marketing.
Janoff came up with the Apple logo with a bite out of it.
In its letterhead and business card implementation, the rounded "a" of the logotype echoed the "bite" in the logo. This logo was developed simultaneously with an advertisement and a brochure; the latter being produced for distribution initially at the first West Coast Computer Faire. Since the original Apple II, Apple has paid high attention to its quality of packaging, partly because of Steve Jobs ' personal preferences and opinions on packaging and final product appearance. Apple later aired eight television commercials for the Apple II GS , emphasizing its benefits to education and students, along with some print ads.
According to some sources see below , more than different models of Apple II clones were manufactured. Without explicitly stating that they were Apple II clones, many had fruit-related names. Examples were the Pineapple and Apricot. Agat was a series of Apple II compatible computers produced in the Soviet Union between and They were widely used in schools in 80's.
First mass-produced models Agat 4 and Agat 7 had different memory layouts and video modes to Apple II, which made first Agats only partially compatible.
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That helped developers to port Apple II software titles to Agat. Later model Agat 9 had Apple II compatibility mode out of the box. Soviet engineers and enthusiasts developed thousands of software titles for Agat, including system software, business applications and rich frameworks for education. This machine was unusual in that it was housed in a heavy cast aluminum chassis. The Basis was equipped with built-in Centronics parallel and RSc serial ports, as well as the standard six Apple II compatible slots.
It also had a numerical keypad. Pearcom initially used a pear shaped rainbow logo, but stopped after Apple threatened to take legal action.
Their official brand name was IRIS 8. They were very expensive and hard to obtain and were produced primarily for use in early computerized digital telephone systems and for education.
Virtual ][ 8.0 – The Apple II emulator for Mac gets major update
Compatibility with the original Apple II was complete. The number of IRIS 8s produced is believed to be on the order of 10 or 20 thousand. An Australian-produced clone of the Apple II was the Medfly , named after the Mediterranean fruit fly that attacks apples. The Medfly computer featured a faster processor, more memory, detached keyboard, lower and upper case characters, and a built-in disk controller.
Until in Brazil , it was illegal to import microcomputers. Because of that, the illegal cloning industry of Apple II-based computers was strong there. In the early s, there were around 20 different clones of Apple II Plus computers in that country, all of them using illegally copied software and hardware since the Apple II and II Plus used commonly available TTL integrated circuits.
There were only two clones of the Apple IIe, since it used custom IC chips that could not be copied, and therefore had to be reversed-engineered and developed in the country. In addition, the Laser IIc was manufactured by Milmar and, despite the name, was a clone of the Apple II Plus, not of the Apple IIc, although it had a design similar to that of the Apple IIc, with an integrated floppy controller and column card, but without an integrated floppy disk drive.
Franklin's response was that a computer's ROM was simply a pattern of switches locked into a fixed position, and one cannot copyright a pattern of switches.
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Apple fought Franklin in court for about five years to get its clones off the market, and was ultimately successful when a court ruled that software stored in ROM was in fact copyrightable in the U. See Apple Computer, Inc.
Franklin Computer Corp. Although it was not fully compatible with the Apple II, it was close, and its popularity ensured that most major developers tested their software on a Laser as well as on genuine Apple machines. Because it was frequently sold via mail order and mass-market retailers such as Sears , the Laser cut into the sales of low-cost competitors such as Commodore Business Machines as much as it did Apple's.
While the first Apple II clones were generally exact copies of their Apple counterparts that competed mainly on price, many clones had extra capabilities too. A Franklin model, the Ace , sported a numeric keypad and lower-case long before these features were added to the Apple II line.
The Laser also had a IIe-style expansion slot on the side that could be used to add peripheral cards. Many schools had a few of these Black Apples in their labs. It has the same shape as the Apple II but was matte silver it was sometimes known as the "silver Apple" and was not an exact copy functionally. The case looked nearly identical. It had 48kb of RAM and the normal expansion capabilities. An unknown company produced a clone called the RX One new feature it had was a numeric keypad.
Additionally, it featured a 5-amp power supply which supplied ample power for add-on cards. Customs, by shipping their computers without ROMS, leaving it to the dealers to populate the boards upon arrival to their private stores. This allowed the PC to operate in a dual-boot fashion: when booted through the Quadlink, the PC could run the majority of Apple II software, and read and write Apple-formatted floppies through the standard PC floppy drive.
The Trackstar also had a connector allowing use of an actual Apple floppy drive, which enhanced its compatibility with software that took advantage of Apple hardware for copy-protection. Originally the Apple II used audio cassette tapes for program and data storage. A dedicated tape recorder along the lines of the Commodore Datasette was never produced; Apple recommended using the Panasonic RQ in some of its early printed documentation. The uses of common consumer cassette recorders and a standard video monitor or television set with a third party R-F modulator made the total cost of owning an Apple II less expensive and helped contribute to the Apple II's success.
Cassette storage may have been inexpensive, but it was also slow and unreliable. The Apple II's lack of a disk drive was "a glaring weakness" in what was otherwise intended to be a polished, professional product. Recognizing that the II needed a disk drive to be taken seriously, Apple set out to develop a disk drive and a DOS to run it.
Wozniak spent the Christmas holidays designing a disk controller that reduced the number of chips used by a factor of 10 compared to existing controllers. Still lacking a DOS, and with Wozniak inexperienced in operating system design, Jobs approached Shepardson Microsystems with the project. Even after disk drives made the cassette input and output ports obsolete they were still used by enthusiasts as simple one-bit audio input-output ports.
Ham radio operators used the cassette input to receive slow scan TV single frame images. A commercial speech recognition Blackjack program was available, after some user-specific voice training it would recognize simple commands Hit, stand. Bob Bishop's "Music Kaleidoscope" was a simple program which monitored the cassette input port and based on zero-crossings created color patterns on the screen, a predecessor to current audio visualization plug-ins for media players. Music Kaleidoscope was especially popular on projection TV sets in dance halls.
Apple and many third-party developers made software available on tape at first, but after the Disk II became available in , tape-based Apple II software essentially disappeared from the market. The Disk II single-sided floppy drive used 5. After about two years, DOS 3. This upgrade was user-installable as two PROMs on older controllers. After the release of DOS 3.
Programs that required DOS 3. It was possible for software developers to create a DOS 3. Later, double-sided drives, with heads to read both sides of the disk, became available from third-party companies. Apple only produced double-sided 5. On a DOS 3. It was possible, with a special utility, to reclaim most of this space for data if a disk did not need to be bootable.
The code contained in there would then pull in the rest of the operating system. DOS stored the disk's directory on track 17, smack in the middle of the track disks, in order to reduce the average seek time to the frequently used directory track. The directory was fixed in size and could hold a maximum of files. Subdirectories were not supported. Most game publishers did not include DOS on their floppy disks, since they needed the memory it occupied more than its capabilities; instead, they often wrote their own boot loaders and read-only file systems.
This also served to discourage "crackers" from snooping around in the game's copy-protection code, since the data on the disk was not in files that could be accessed easily. Some third-party manufacturers produced floppy drives that could write 40 tracks to most 5. Most drives, even Disk IIs, could write 36 tracks; a two byte modification to DOS to format the extra track was common. Double-sided disks, with notches on both sides, were available at a higher price, but in practice the magnetic coating on the reverse of nominally single-sided disks was usually of good enough quality to be used both sides were coated in the same way to prevent warping, although only one side was certified for use.
In practice, however, this method was an inexpensive way to store twice as much data for no extra cost, and was widely used for commercially released floppies as well. Later, Apple IIs were able to use 3. DOS 3.