Han mac tu vuong cao chi

That explanation, however, makes it difficult to understand all of the information in the Du dia chi about the Ngo, because that information says that there was a difference between how Ming people Minh nhan and Ngo people dressed. I therefore still think that this term at that time was used to refer to members of the Chinese community in Dai Viet in general rather than a smaller group of people who came with the Ming and stayed , and that community, as this passage shows, was a Sino-Viet community, as the Chinese and Viet intermarried. When the Ming people changed the way they dressed, the Ngo people did not because they were outside of the Ming empire living in Dai Viet, and they were probably not forced to dress a certain way by the Dai Viet government.

Which gets to another point: this term Ngo seems to appear when a Viet person is angry. I live in a place, Hawaii, that is multi-ethnic. People generally get along fine. Buy it!! My guess would be that you had the same situation in Dai Viet. There was a Chinese or Sino-Viet community, and normally things were fine. This is very normal, but I think people have trouble seeing this in the Vietnamese past as no one talks about divisions in society and nobody talks about anything negative.

But there is good and bad everywhere. They may also be in the Ming empire without changing the dress code. We know that Ming empire is huge and the central government is in the northern part.


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However, the problem is that the title itself is not clear on that fact. And that is the source of confusion. Whitmore are of the opinion that this word indicates a separate group of Chinese or expatriate Chinese, or Chinese Vietnamese, or Vietnamese collaborators, but not the Ming Chinese. Then there was a footnote which showed that a Zhou clan Ming did not follow these customs.

I would argue that those are indirect and circumstantial evidence at best. There was nothing in there that said what you said, i. There is no mystery about what this term means in this document. It does not indicate a group of other Chinese or the collaborators. It indicates a regime, a dynasty, or a country. And how is this document related to the BNDC? In short, if we are to use extraneous documents to explain another document, it is best that they are related and written by the same person s.

And we would want touse an interpretation that is the clearest. Here it is used to criticize the Ming, but in the Du dia chi the Ming are praised while the Ngo are criticized. We can see a big difference between the two versions. In mine, the author clearly makes a distinction between the language and costume of his country versus the languages and costumes of the other, foreign countries.

Because it is clear that the Viet or the country of Dai Viet were not under Yuan rule and therefore never followed Yuan customs. It is actually the opposite. What I see is that he was very proud that his own country along with the Ming and the Song did not follow the customs of the Yuan. That term would include the Chinese living in Vietnam as well as Chinese living in China or anything that is Chinese. It is slightly derogatory but also very common and means anything that is Chinese or China itself.

I am way out of my depth in this area of study, but I find it really interesting. I have an underlying question. This was a period of time when few people were able to travel to encounter distant people. I suppose that diplomats and the military could have. But the mass of population probably just rolled with the events of their immediate environment.

I tend to think, like I think Mr. The correction of this diversity was a necessary political step to creating greater unity within the region. I imagine that it was a bit of a hodgepodge. Some people were probably multi-lingual or spoke various pidgin languages. I completely agree with you and Mr. And I also agree that the elite probably had more of an identity consciousness than the mass, as you stated above. And since we are talking about an extremely political and historical document here, I believe the above reasoning is more applicable, especially since Mr. Thanks for pointing that out.

First of all, the foot soldiers in any Chinese army in the past and certainly well into the 20th century were the dregs of society. The Ming soldiers who stayed behind, however, were even worse, as they had participated in an illegitimate effort to incorporate Dai Viet into the Ming empire. But how many people in his kingdom came close to resembling him?

I was looking at some writings my Ming officials who were in the Red River delta region today and they describe a world of incredible diversity. It may have functioned more like a political or hegemonic system or ideology? It might have just been a way of dressing and some difference in language.

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Within one decade many countries have doubled animal product consumption level such as Thailand has increased the rate of 2. Forecasting the country needs for some major agricultural products - The group of UNDP experts, who help Vietnam doing research to develop 5 industrial good categories including food processing industry, said that food consumption levels in domestic market depended on major factors: first population growth rate, secondly the consumption elastic coefficient of that foods.

Consumption elastic coefficient of a food is the ratio between the annual average increase volume of that food and the annual average increase volume in national income. According to this expert group, elastic coefficient for rice is approximately 0. For Vietnam meat and milk products this number is approximate under 1. For example, the current milk consumtion level per capita of Viet Nam is still low in compared with other countries in the world and the region. So in the next 10 years, the demands for milk of the domestic market will be increased by the economic development momentum.

However, the sudden increase once happened to elating coefficient 1. According to a forecast of the Institute of Strategy - Ministry of Planning and Investment, the earning growth in period - will be 7. If the elastic coefficient of milk demand on that period is 0. Through practical production and consumption, socio-economic growth trends, population growth rate and GDP growth rate of Ha Tay province to Forecasting the provincial consumption level I. The export condition of our breeding products In the years before , exported products are mainly pork.

In the early s beef and duck products increased. The highest year was over 5 thousand tons of beef; 1, tons of duck meat which made meat export volume reached nearly 23 thousand tons. From prospects of export increase by the year , seemed to be clear. Table Exporting situation of poultry products in — Previously, the meat export market was mainly former Soviet Union. The highest year of exporting to the Bulgaria market was just only over tons. These types of goods are sold as frozen and packaged according to specifications. In addition, there are also some of the pork trading contracts to Singapore, Laos and lean pork to the Netherlands.

However, all these agreements are based on temporary veterinary decrees and generally unstable. In addition to major products, hair and skin also take advantage to pre-process for exportation. In recent years long ducks for exportation has increased relatively from tons to 1, tons and reached 2, tons but over the past 2 years long ducks export decreased. Leather products of cattle have also been considered as an important product. Few years, our leather shoe industry is developing quickly so cattle leather can be sold with a higher price for exporting to Thailand.

Exporting pork of Vietnam according to major markets Table Processed meat export in I. Through small trading ways through the land border gates in year , we exported 77 tons of live chickens worth thousand USD, 16 tons of pre-processed chicken worth 70 thousand USD, turnover from eggs reached 3. In the past, volume of imported poultry was not much and if carried out through land border gates the volume was only about 30 - 50 tons. However, in recent years the poultry export volume has been increased considerably for example in as imported chicken products reached 1.

The above results show that the trading of poultry products was unpopular and listed in our agricultural export products. The exchange traders completely self-develop and because of no contract production so it still causes disorder production for domestic consumption. This is a big issue of a large poultry industry. The advantage of breeding is its fast turnarounds; the low food cost for 1kilogram weightgain was not taken advantage. International market tendencies Global meat market has increased in mid-decade 90s, mainly by high speed increase of poultry meat and pork production while the level of beef consumption per capita almost did not increase.

Among the major factors affecting the meat industry, the price of food animals is the most crucial one. In addition, increase in residential income and urbanization has encouraged consumption demand to increase. Mad cow outbreak in Europe, foot and mouth disease in Taiwan, avian influenza in Hong Kong has forced the countries producing to destroy on large scale due to the concern of infection and forced the consumption countries to strengthen food safety measures which have caused the disorder in the supply — demand balance of the global meat market.

On the international market, the proportion of the total EU export volume in the total global export volume have decreased therefore policies supporting exporters are gradually eliminated. Meanwhile, importers of Japan tend to rise along with policies reducing import duties. The implementation of agreements on measures for food safety opens new opportunities for exporters in the regions not affected by diseases.

The recovery of the market countries with economic transition - Central Europe, Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after a decline period from the reformation - is another encouraging sign of becoming the major regional import — export markets. The regional agreements, such as NAFTA also bring opportunities to improve the infrastructure of the livestock sector and meat processing in the region. Pork II. Beef II. Poultry maet has replaced beef and food becoming second important part in many countries around the world, mainly due to low price compared with other types of meat and food safety as well as by being highly accepted for regional believes in many countries.

Consumption level per capita expected to annually increase 3. The growth rate reached the highest in Asian countries. Import of developing countries and countries with economic transition contributes an important part to the poultry trading. An important part in the poultry trading is that china will be the country exporting many cheap poultry products such as chicken legs and chicken wings, while exporting a large quantity of high value-added products.

Hong Kong and Singapore are other major importing countries while imports from Taiwan more limited. Russian imports is expected to double to meet the increase in domestic needs. Increased import Level mainly will be met through supplies from the U. Average export prices of poultry meat expected to increase 2. However, due to avian influenza arising on a large scale affected seriously to demands and poultry product prices. Perhaps, in a short time there is no comprehensive solution for this issue so a slowly increase in supply sources makes the price increasing.

Vietnam export potential The study predicts that exporting ability in the far future is very difficult, especially when Vietnam lack both experience and databases, excellent experts Table below may show that the vital role of exporting meat products and animal husbandry at red river delta still catches much attention because red river delta have a high position in the export.

Vietnam rice and meat exporting forecast - II. Science and technology Since science and technology as a lever, is a force to develop agriculture and rural economy in line with the modernized and industrialized orientation, only constructing and developing high-tech agriculture can improve the competitiveness of agricultural products. In recent years, the areas of agro-forestry and fishery raw materials cooperating effectively with centers, the phrase, processing facilities have produced products for export with a high quality.

At the same time developing new farms in key communes needs to reach 4 million chicken heads, according to the following directions: based on farms of scale on 10, heads with a capacity of 3 million of which types 10 to 20 thousand heads accounting for 45 farms, Types greater than 20 thousand 22 farms, type of scale over 40 thousand chicken 13 - 15 farms. Type with scale less than 10 thousand children with capacity of 1 million chickens in which there are kinds of scale with 5 - 10 thousand chickens are from to farms. With the herd scale development above, in , the province needs In , we need After depending on specific conditions, we can select bases with suitable conditions for seed production, investment to enlarger the kind of scales with over 40 thousand chicken which can be used for seed production and raising chicken for trading.

Starting from the food source restriction, food demand highly increased, the province needs to have policies to encourage all sectors to participate and to suggest solutions to an effective management to create an efficient motivation to develop food production- delivery network more stably and to avoid the risks of quantity and quality food which are not guaranteed that are: have suitable tax policies to help relevant enterprises working in food service operate more effective in Ha Tay.

A good measure to lower the food price of the first period is transfer technology transfer to mix food from different animal food companies for animal raising farms according to farm self-mixing formula of manufacturer. Because the food quality needs to be determined by the age to have the right ratio of protein, energy, vitamin so it is necessary to strengthen state management, especially the action of casually building food processing bases. In the period - ha tay should not build new ones. Raw materials for food production and processing in next time are mainly still bought from outside the province or be imported because the price is cheaper than that to buy raw materials domestically, but to lower the price it should exempt import tax and tax incentives VAT.

At the same time Province also needs to have policies to promote production of all kinds of seed materials for food production and processing on the basis of increasing areas of winter crops needed to consider to reduce the maize areas in the plant converting the structure. It is more important to attract maize sources for trading in Northwest and create conditions for joint-venture food production capacity.

One of the necessary conditions is to take the land to build houses for raising industrial chickens and chicken industry drop by the garden according to the projected targets mentioned in plan in the period - which is , m2 and , m2 in the period Meat processing Currently in Ha Tay, there is a company of food processing for Export which includes 2 branches with a considerable processing technology with design capacity of 3, tons per year, 1 branch with the capacity thousand tons per year.

In year , each month it processed tons and according to reports this company got 1. Thus processing areas of the province is very modest compared to the volume of meat production. The trend of building new meat processing factories will be associated with the breeding areas which supply raw materials for export processing to closely facilitate links between stages of production materials and processing stages.

Initially, it is vital to develop the capacity of scattered poultry slaughtering houses in the large scale animal raising farms with a domestic production line in accordance with each type of farming. The province advocates supporting the operation of 30 major slaughter houses which is considered as a necessary work in the period - The water used for testing shall be obtained from an approved source. All other items not covering the proposed technical solution shall remain.

The entire design for alternative solutions is the obligation of the Contractor. The construction and testing of the sewage networks will also comply with European or German Standards. All proposed pipes and associated fitting and couplings for incorporation in the Works shall be certified by the manufacturer that they comply with the above standards.

Notwithstanding such certification, any pipe found to be defective by visual examination should be rejected. Such defects which shall include cracks, honeycombing or effects of incorrect handling. Pipe joints shall be stainless or galvanized steel collars with rubber jointing rings recommended by the pipe manufacturer for use in sewerage pipelines.

Construction Methods of Pipe Jacking If the Contractor will implement alternative solutions for pipe laying e. Thrust and Reception Shafts Thrust and reception shafts shall be designed and constructed to allow the safe operation of equipment and handling of materials and to withstand all loadings imposed by ground pressure, superimposed loads from surface structures and the maximum anticipated trust forces. Pipe Jacking Operation All key personnel shall be experienced in pipe jacking.

Cut pipes shall not be jacked. This fluid shall be maintained until grouting is carried out. Sealing and Packing Pipe joints shall comply with all relevant provisions of European and German Standards. All lifting holes and grouting holes shall be sealed with a cement: sand mortar with plasticizer, or a purpose-made plug.

Monitoring and Instrumentation The Contractor shall survey, monitor and record all jacking work as it proceeds so as to form a complete record of the work which shall include records of jacking loads, line and level measurements, the distance moved and the relationship between them. Copies of all records shall be supplied to the Engineer at agreed intervals. Disposal of Spoil The Contractor shall dispose of spoil in accordance with the requirements of Section 1 Earthworks.

Connection with Manholes and Chambers Jacking pipes shall be cut back such that the ends of pipes will be embedded in the wall of the manhole 50 mm beyond the inner face. The manholes shall be constructed either from in-situ cast concrete or pre-fabricated. Where pre-cast manholes are built, all pre-cast concrete sections shall comply with the requirements of DIN Sewers shall have a spacing of the manholes not exceeding approx.

If two or more sewers enter the manhole, the diameter shall be sufficient to accommodate adequate benching. The manhole covers shall be class D in walkways or D in the streets. The maximum spacing shall not exceed 25 cm. Testing of the Manholes shall comply with EN No infiltration flow shall be admissible. They shall be obtained from an approved manufacturer or manufactured on Site in an approved block making machine.

The blocks on removal from the machine shall be carefully deposited on edge on racks under sheds erected by the Contractor and left for 3 days during which period they shall be kept constantly wet after which they shall be placed on edge in the open on racks and protected by sacking or other approved covering and kept wet for a further 5 days.

Thereafter, the blocks shall be left in the same position without wetting for a further 20 days. No blocks will be allowed to be used in the work until they are 28 days old and until samples have been taken and approved by the Engineer. Block sizes shall be subject to design requirements, but with a minimum thickness of mm for external walls and mm for internal partition walls. Faces of blocks shall be mm by mm metric co-ordinated or other blockwork co-ordinate sizing approved by the Employer's Representative.

Pre-cast concrete blocks shall be solid with a minimum compressive strength of Where concrete blocks are cast on Site, they shall be made in approved concrete block making machines. All casing shall be carried out with the block making machines under cover. The concrete shall be put into the machine moulds in thin layers and properly tamped. On removal from the machine, the blocks shall be carefully cured. After placement on racks under sheds, the blocks shall be kept wet for three days. Curing shall be continued for a further five days with the blocks being kept on racks in the open under mat covers and kept wet.

Further curing shall take place by leaving the blocks under mat covers for a further seven days without wetting. If the Contractor wishes to use steam-cured concrete blocks, he shall request the approval of the Employer's Representative to the methods of curing proposed. Blocks shall be carefully packed for transport and unloaded and stacked on delivery by hand or other approved means so as to avoid damage to surfaces. Blockwork shall be constructed using cement sand mortar and joints shall not be less than 6 mm thick nor more than 10 mm thick at their narrowest part.

Where appropriate, the courses shall be laid level or parallel to the axis of the work and with parallel neat and regular joints.

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Vertical joints shall be kept true and in perpendicular alignment as appropriate. Immediately before being laid, the blocks shall be thoroughly soaked in clean water, and before continuing partly completed work the exposed bed joint shall be likewise soaked. The courses shall be built up uniformly and no portion of the wall during laying shall rise more than one meter above any other portion of the wall. No bats or broken blocks shall be allowed except where necessary for closures. The joints shall generally be not more than 6 mm in the beds and 10 mm at the ends or such other dimensions as may be agreed by the Employer's Representative.

All joints shall be completely filled flush with mortar. All blockwork shall be protected during erection from the effects of rain, frost or snow by suitable covering. Curing finished work shall be as specified for concrete. The Employer's Representative may order that all block laying should be suspended during frosty weather. The mortar shall be measured in specially prepared gauge boxes and thoroughly mixed in an approved mechanical mixer or mixed dry on clean and approved mixing platforms, with water added afterwards until all parts are completely incorporated and brought to a proper consistency.

The use of re-tempering of wholly or partially set mortar will not be allowed. Mortar shall be mixed until the colour and consistency are uniform and shall be mixed only as and when required. Mortar shall fulfil the requirements of concrete class B Mortar Plasticizers shall be used only with the approval of the Engineer.

Plasticizers shall be used strictly in accordance with the recommendation of the manufacturer. All sand for making mortar shall be cleaned well, graded siliceous sand of good, sharp, hard quality equal to samples which shall be deposited with the Engineer for prior approval before use for the Works. The sand shall be free from lumps of stone, earth, loam, dust, salt, organic matter and any other deleterious substance, and shall be sieved through a fine sieve and washed as necessary or when directed by the Engineer.

Quick lime shall be run to putty in a pit dug on the Site or in an approved container immediately after delivery to Site. The water to be first run into the pit or container and the lime shall be added until it is completely submerged and stirred until all lumps are disintegrated.

The resulting milk-lime shall then be run through a 3 mm square-mesh sieve and run into a pit or other container and kept clean and moist for not less than 4 weeks before use. Hydrated lime shall be added to water in a clean receptacle thoroughly mixed to the consistency of thick cream. The lime shall then be allowed to stand and kept clean and moist for not less than 16 hours before use.

General Chemical resistant mortar shall be used in corrosive environment for internal pointing of blockwork in underground structures and for internal rendering of concrete surfaces including concrete blockwork, or where the installation of plastic lining is impractical. Chemical resistant mortar shall be of a type and make approved by the Employer's Representative.

The following sub-clauses cover the requirements for chemical-resistant resin mortars for bedding, jointing or pointing bricks, concrete blocks or tiles, to be used as a corrosion-resistant lining in sewers, manholes, chambers and related structures.

The mortar may have to be applied and cured in damp or wet conditions. Mortar required for pointing may have to be applied by gun, through a small diameter nozzle reaching to the bottom of the pointing groove. Information to be Submitted by the Contractor Where the Contractor wishes to submit results of tests previously carried out on materials for chemical resistant mortar, those results shall be submitted with certificates from the independent testing laboratories used.

The Contractor shall arrange to have samples of chemical resistant resin mortar tested by a laboratory approved by the Employer's Representative and suitability for the purpose of compliance with this Specification shall be established to the satisfaction of the Employer's Representative before any such product is used in the Works.

Further samples shall be taken during the period of application at the rate of one sample for every 1, kg of mortar delivered for use and tested by any or all of the procedures necessary to establish compliance with this Specification, as required by the Employer's Representative. If any sample fails to comply, application shall cease until suitability and compliance with the Specification has been re- established to the satisfaction of the Employer's Representative.

Any samples of chemical-resistant resin mortars submitted by the Contractor for the approval of the Employer's Representative shall be accompanied by a complete set of the literature issued by the manufacturer describing their product. In addition to the manufacturer's standard data sheets, details of other installations where the mortar has been used, and any references as to its suitability should be included.

Material and Properties Description The chemical resistant mortar shall be an intimate mixture of liquid resinous material and a setting agent and may contain appropriately selected filler materials. When mixed, these components shall form a mortar with a workability suitable for the proposed method of application that subsequently hardens. The liquid resin shall be any solvent-free resinous material capable of forming a chemical resistant mortar when mixed with a suitable catalyst and if required, a filler material.

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The filler material, if used, shall be compatible with the liquid resin, of the chemical resistance required and of a size that will permit the preparation of a minimum joint thickness of 3. The mixed mortar shall not adversely affect or be affected by other construction materials with which it will properly come into contact, including fixtures and fittings.

The colours of individual components of the mortar shall be sufficiently different from each other so that complete homogeneous mixing of the components will be apparent by visual inspection. The colour of the completely mixed chemical resistant resin mortar shall be appreciably different from that of the bricks and tiles to be pointed. The pot life of the mortar shall be considered exceeded when the mortar can no longer be applied to a prepared surface without curling behind the trowel according to DIN. If it is proposed, subject to the approval of the Employer's Representative, to apply the mortar by some other method e.

Mortar applied at any time during the pot life shall have the specified properties when cured. This bond strength shall be achieved regardless of whether the mortar is applied to a dry, a damp or wet surface without priming or other form of surface preparation. The bond strength shall be tested and measured in accordance with ASTM C using samples of the actual construction materials.

The cured mortar shall be capable of resisting attack by any constituents that may normally or occasionally be present in the wastewater, or which may form within the system by a combination of physical, chemical and biological reactions. The maximum changes in weight, compressive strength and bond strength shall be measured after 7, 28, 56 and 84 days.

The results of the tests, for petrol and each acid concentration and temperature shall be plotted on a graph, against time elapsed and submitted for approval by the Employer's Representative. While discoloration and loss of gloss on the surface of these tested specimens is acceptable, there shall be no surface cracks, etching, pitting or softening of the exposed surface. If the test solution becomes discoloured during the test, the test shall be continued with fresh solution and there shall be no further discoloration.

The mortar shall have a shrinkage not exceeding 0. The cured mortar shall have an absorption not exceeding 3. The cured chemical-resistant resin mortar shall have properties of shrinkage and thermal expansion such as to be able to withstand those tests prescribed in ASTM C Testing Requirements for testing of the chemical resistant resin mortar are described in the previous sub-clause. For convenience, those tests are summarised below, giving the relevant ASTM standards, in accordance to which the tests have to be carried out.

Testing shall be carried out subsequently at the rate of one set of tests per 1, kg of mortar delivered to Site. Storage and Application The individual components of the chemical resistant resin mortar shall be supplied in pre-measured quantities and packaged by the manufacturer in units sized to suit the method of application.

Under no circumstances shall these quantities be divided to mix smaller batches. All packages shall be clearly marked as to size, contents, mixing instructions, safety precautions, storage requirements and date of expiration of the contents. The manufacturer's recommendations for storage of the individual components of the mortar shall be followed. In all cases, storage shall be in a dry, cool place with containers tightly sealed and away from open flame. Components that have exceeded their shelf life or have become wet shall no be used. The manufacturer's recommendations for the safe use of the mortar shall be followed.

Han Mac Tu Le Quyen

Workers shall wear gloves when handling the product. In the mixing and working areas there shall be no open flame and adequate ventilation shall be provided. Mixing of the mortar shall be in strict accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. Mixing shall be thorough and complete such that the mortar is a homogeneous colour and free from lumps and air bubbles. In no case shall unspecified materials such as sand, cement or water be added to the mix. In no case shall mixed mortar that has become unworkable be retempered with resin liquid or by any other means.

Once mortar has become unworkable, it shall be discarded. The manufacturer's recommendations for surface preparation and for application and spreading of the mortar shall be followed. The joints shall be completely raked out to a depth of 25 mm. The surfaces to which the mortar is applied shall be free from dirt, debris, grease, oil and other materials that would prevent the formation of a sound bond.

Where surfaces are damp or wet, such special measures as are recommended by the manufacturer for these conditions shall be adopted. The joints shall be carefully inspected by the Contractor prior to mortar application. A smooth, even surface shall be achieved, flush with the surface of the blocks or tiles. The manufacturer's recommendations for curing the mortar shall be followed.

The Ngô in the Dư Địa Chí were not the Ming

Special consideration shall be given to curing in damp or wet conditions. Material excavated out of the road bed which is suitable for use in fill, shall be used for filling as far as this is practicable. All material shall be placed, spread evenly and compacted; spreading shall be undertaken concurrently with placing. The material shall be spread in one or more layers so that after compaction the total thickness is as required.

Where compacting plant is of insufficient capacity, the sub-base shall be laid in two or more layers. During the construction period the sub-base shall be maintained in such a condition that it will be drained at all times. The outflow shall be diverted away from the construction at all times. The outflow shall be diverted away from the construction in order to prevent erosion. The sub-grade shall be kept drained. All damage caused by water where the sub-grade cannot be compacted to the required density, shall be removed and repaired.

Sub-grade shall be cleaned of all foreign matter, pot-holes, loose material, ruts, corrugations, depressions or any other defect. The Contractor shall rectify, scarify, water, grade and re-compact the sub-grade to the level at his own expense and all to the satisfaction of the engineer. No surfacing shall be done until the sub-grade has been inspected and approved by the Engineer.

The number of passes to be made will be determined having regard to the characteristics of the plant to be employed and the material to be used. If necessary, test specimens shall be taken to determine the optimum method of compaction. The surface of any layer of material shall, on completion of compaction, be well closed, free from movement under compaction plant and free from compaction planes. All loose, segregated or otherwise defective areas shall be made good to the thickness of the layer and re-compacted.

The maximum compacted thickness of any layer shall be 25 cm. The sub-grade layers shall be compacted from slope stake to slope stake at the optimum moisture content. The layer shall be scarified and water shall be mixed in or the material allowed to dry out to the correct moisture content.


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The layer shall then be compacted. The final surface shall be graded to level. Where shown on the drawings or directed by the Engineer, the formation shall be completed without the addition of any wearing course, sub-base, base or shoulders. The Contractor shall finish the sub-grade by grading watering and compacting with four passes of a 12 Mg smooth-wheeled roller.

Irregularities shall not be allowed over 12 mm when measured from a 3 meter long straight board. Base coarse is the top surfacing coarse which supports traffic and it is the coarse immediately below the surface dressing.


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The minimum thickness shall be mm after proper compaction. The selected gravel or crushed stone base shall be minimum mm or as required by the existing ground conditions. If the thickness of the base course is required to be more than mm, the material will be then laid and processed in two or more layers. The materials to be used shall be from a source proposed by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer.