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Tiago says:. Renan says:. Dinis Figueiredo says:. Sara Silva says:. David says:. This scale showed excellent internal consistency, as evidenced by the Cronbach coefficient of 0. With regard to the training participants' responses, the individuals generally rated the project positively, particularly for clarity and objectivity, doubts and queries, and machines.
Chart 2 below shows the aspects that the training participants most liked. Four categories of aspects were derived from content analysis: I liked the monitors, the teaching approach, mixing with others and expanding my knowledge. With regard to the aspects least liked by the participants of the training, according to participant reports, one category was cited by most participants: duration of the training Chart 3. In the present study, after participating in the Actively Station intervention, the individuals from the training group showed significant improvement in language performance compared to the subjects from the control group.
This may suggest that the individuals in the TG performed the semantic search faster, with improvement in verbal memory and processing speed skills for verbal materials. Studies such as that by Bopp and Verhaeghen 36 have documented maintenance of semantic and verbal memory during the normal aging process, where this may allow greater improvements when these are abilities stimulated. The findings reported by Machado 37 showed that after use of computers and computer games, the elderly participants felt satisfaction with their own performance, expressing feelings of inclusion in the technological and social world.
In the present study, satisfaction with the teacher, the content and positive attitudes in relation to the IT training had a strong influence on participant improvements. The importance of the motivation provided throughout the learning process, and not only during the initial stages, was highlighted. In the same vein, the study by Tomporowski 38 revealed that, despite learning difficulties due to sensory and short-term memory decline, elderly students, when properly guided and motivated, tend to feel satisfied and supported, and consequently learn new information as effectively as younger students.
Besides these results for satisfaction and motivation, Keyes 39 stated that critical stimulation on the intellectual task being undertaken by older adults can aid the learning process.
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This critical stimulation is a way of promoting the adaptation and flexibility of elderly with regard to the teaching model put in practice in an intervention for the third age. The preparation of printed materials for the course also aided participant learning. The feedback on actions, prior preparation of instructions and clear outlining of the main objective of the tasks to be learned proved fundamental activities of the researcher in teaching elderly about Internet use.
Therefore, it follows that improvements in cognitive can positively influence self-rating of life. However, unlike the study by Irigaray et al. Knowledge on all relevant aspects of the aging process is required to structure an effective program reflecting the reality of the participants involved. For the majority of the older adults, learning computer games was a special achievement. Many reported during the interventions that they now play games with their children at family get-togethers. Curiosity to learn new things led to the perception by the elderly that there are no limits to realizing desires, dreams or overcoming obstacles.
Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that the use of technology by the older adults contributed to mental health and to achieving good quality of life during old age. The interaction during and outside the training also helped reduce social isolation and loneliness. Critical stimulation during teaching, clear and objective language, recognition of students' knowledge, and planning of actions by the researcher were fundamental for efficacy of learning. The inclusion of the elderly in the world of IT and learning, the development of new methods, and discussions on achieving this, appear to be goal of common interest to both public and private educational institutions.
Indeed, changes in subjective memory may require the use of an intervention protocol which includes goal-setting and feedback information, matched to cognitive tasks organized in increasing level of difficulty. Overall, the Actively Station project has produced promising results. It has provided a space for interaction of young and older adults and promoted a rich array of communication through digital and technological interactivity. The project has given both these age groups the opportunity to discover and build new meanings, particularly with respect to the social roles which they can and wish to engage in throughout their aging process.
Elderly individuals, who are expected to merely convey experiences and knowledge, have put themselves into a situation where they know little or nothing about a specific context or sphere, and can experience the challenge of experimenting the new and a sense of inexperience in which they assume the role of a student. This study provides important contributions, because it shows that interventions with electronic games can stimulate and promote better cognitive performance in Brazilian adults and elderly without dementia or depression.
It should be highlighted that the gerontological literature emphasizes the importance of cognitive preservation by promoting the maintenance of autonomy, independence and lowering risks of hospitalization and institutionalization in the elderly. The program could be replicated in other Brazilian cities as a health promotion measure and public policy in Gerontology. This study has some limitations, including the fact that the participants were recruited from the setting of a health and education center for the elderly, where results reported were representative of active older adults.
The effect of the cognitive training on satisfaction with learning can be increased. Additionally, the participants of the TG were not compared against a group receiving another type of intervention or to an active CG, a comparison which could have allowed the effect of interacting in a group to be identified. Also, the distribution of participants across the groups was not fully randomized and may have introduced some bias in favor of the TG. Future studies should replicate the method of this study with a larger number of sessions and fewer participants to further elucidate the relationship among learning, cognitive performance, satisfaction, motivation, attitudes and beliefs with regard to technology.
Author contribution. Tiago Nascimento Ordonez: invited and selected the study participants, coordinated stimulation sessions with electronic games, assisted in the ethical procedures of the study and in the choice of research sites, performed the data analyses and participated in the drafting of the manuscript. Felipe Borges: invited and selected the study participants, coordinated stimulation sessions with electronic games, assisted in the ethical procedures of the study, in the choice of research site and participated in the drafting of the manuscript.
Camila Sato Kanashiro: conducted the evaluations, coordinated stimulation sessions with electronic games, typed the protocols and participated in qualitative data analyses. Carolina Carneiro das Neves Santos: carried out the evaluations, coordinated stimulation sessions with electronic games, typed the protocols and participated in qualitative data analysis. Samara Santos Hora: carried out the evaluations, coordinated stimulation sessions with the electronic games, typed the protocols and participated in qualitative data analysis. Thais Bento Lima da Silva: coordinated the team, carried out the intervention, reviewed the literature, performed data analyses and participated in the drafting of the manuscript.
Lean on Wii: physical rehabilitation with virtual reality Wii peripherals. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, Amsterdam, ; Acessed in: 20 Feb. Motriz rev. Sales MB. Elderly online: effects of a digital inclusion program in cognitive performance. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. Effects of cognitive training interventions with olders adults: A randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc. J Am Geriatr Soci. Long-term effects of cognitive training on everyday functional outcomes in older adults. Assessing compliance: active versus inactive trainees in a memory intervention.
Clin Interv Aging. Kawashima R. J Prev Med Public Health. Memory training for older adults with low education: mental images versus categorization. Educ Gerontol. Ordonez TN, Cachioni M. Rev Bras Geriatr Gerontol. Promoting older adults' well-being through Internet training and use. J Aging Mental Health. Chen Y, Persson A. Internet use among young and older adults: Relation to psychological well-being. Arq Neuropsiquiatr.
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